For the past fifty years, the artist has tried to understand the principles governing photography. At the age of fourteen, he learned B&W film and print processing; and found he enjoyed the manipulation of images (through darkroom techniques) more than he enjoyed taking photographs. Over those same fifty years, the art, science and technology of photographic art have dramatically changed. The artist continues to explore the manipulation of images in his artwork with the goal of pushing the boundaries of this artwork outward.